A HISTORY OF COLLAGE
The collage as technical procedure has an ancient history, since the very invention of paper in China (200 BC), but its incorporation in the art will be accepted only from the twentieth century with Cubism (art movement). Collage in Cubism was proposed to break with accepted standards of Renaissance art and release the artist of the screen so he could use other materials to express their art.
Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque are the major representatives of this art. were influenced by the writings, theories, and paintings by Paul Cezanne. To innovate and gain more freedom in their artistic productions, they began to incorporate sand, newspapers, feathers, fabrics and other materials in their work.
Movements such as Dada (who declared a movement against all movements), elected bonding as the primary means of expression, introducing the irony of it, realism provocative creations, and nihilism.
Fruit Bowl and Cup (1912) by Georges Braque, is considered one of the first collages of modern art.
We can not speak without quoting Henri Matisse collage, one of the world's greatest artistic expressions, including the art of collage.Matisse is considered one of the main founders and representatives of Fauvism. He began to devote himself to painting in 1890 after finishing his law studies. gave great impetus to the art of his time with his style characterized by a line vig Orosa use of strong colors and tones.
In 1930, Henri Matisse can no longer use oil paint, for health reasons, thus abandoning his career as a painter. Matisse was rediscovered in the art of collage technique that continued practicing until the end of life. "Why did not I think of that? I am increasingly convinced that with a simple cut can express the same things than with drawing and painting ...," said Henri Matisse.
In 1947 Matisse published his book Jazz, composed of several works that have used the technique that Matisse called "drawing with scissors". The book behind the Jazz Matisse prints on the art and life.
Let's see some works of the artists mentioned above.
Collage and fragmentation
Frank Stella clearly makes use of collage to create new relationships pictorial. His work, like that of many contemporary artists, refers to a practice that went into the art world around 1912 with Picasso and Braque. In this respect Picasso once said: "The papier colle was really the crux of the discovery, even if, aesthetically, the Cubist paintings can be more valued. One of the key points of cubism sought to shift the reality: she was not the object, but the painting ... The goal was to show the bonding different materials that could enter into the composition to become a reality in the painting itself, according to Picasso big news was not the invention of Cubism, more glue, because it is made possible break with a derivative of the spatial perspective. Glue marks the transition from analytical to synthetic Cubism, or replace a formal analysis that decomposes the objects line by line, plane by plane and thinks the space from its minimum elements for a painting that goes together, synthesize, paste these elements into a new composition. With this new technique can be obtained from new spatial arrangements of fragmentation and juxtaposition of different materials on the surface of the screen.
The collage, which revolutionized modern art, so it appears more striking in recent painting. Paste and add is something we do all the time with the computer. If modern art was deeply influenced by the cinema, I believe that contemporary art tends to the computer with its incredible ability to transform images. The question that arises is how the painting can be seen in this new world.
Many contemporary works play with the collage as a way to disband the notion of authorship. At the end of life of both Basquiat and Warhol made paintings together, it is interesting to note how the attitude of each other's challenges. Warhol celebrates the world of advertising in idealizing instance, just watch how the horse of Mobil still refers to the figure of Pegasus, the feature uses Basquiat graffiti, urban saturation, to put the meaning of images in check.
Warhol and Basquiat "Image and Meaning"
To understand the contemporary painting is necessary to analyze the changes occurring in the relationship between image and word.
When the artist is freed from the conventions of naturalism, he can think about the specificity of its means of expression, as we have seen in modern art the screen surface is no longer conceived as a transparent medium and virtual, but as an arena for ongoing experimentation. In this case the design of a written letter is as good as the outline of a face, a spot color can assert itself, the painting is a form of language specific and autonomous.
In modern art the relationship between image and text is replaced by a revolution, a revolution that can be seen today in any magazine or billboard of our city: the words fail to recall their content. They begin to assert themselves as expressive graphics. By releasing the commitment narrative becomes the word for modern art, just a picture or drawing. Does not evoke no more than themselves, their presence material. A drawing is seen primarily as design and not as representation of something. By breaking with naturalism the artists come to understand the vision as a process (not just a passive mechanism for capturing images) mediated by culture, by word, by memory. The viewer seeks to decipher the fastest possible image you have before you. Warhol had a key role in this paradigm shift in contemporary art, where the work often worth only 15 minutes from the viewer's attention.
Artists such as Marcel Duchamp perform a critical look at the retina, and question what will be the place that a work of art should occupy in the modern world. Colors and shapes are seen as a constructive operation that are distant from a visual referent previously established, do so in art implies a mental operation.
According to Duchamp, the painting is finally ready again to raise other types of associations are not purely visual.
The artist always part of certain rules that induce the viewer.
When making a critique of painting as retinal, as something that could take place only in the eye of the beholder, Duchamp explains the codes inherent in any presentation of an image. Establishing new relationships between words and objects. One word can take the place of an object in reality. An image can take the place of a word in a proposition. Duchamp thus operates on two levels, in language and image. The attack against the Mona Lisa is not alone in imposing mustaches, but also reduce it in size and show that we are seeing a replay. There most reproduced image in the world than the Mona Lisa? And yet this image always keeps it a mystery that fascinates us. Is it possible to create an original image in a world filled with reproductions? The operation here is artistically transfigured before in the sense of the existing image to create a new original image. It is thus a radical critique of painting as something that takes place exclusively in the retina of the observer. This essential linkage between image and word was perceived by Duchamp, and from it, many artists reiterate the interplay between text and image precisely not to subsume one another:
By introducing the context of art a urinal, a technical object, mechanically reproducible in series, Duchamp raises questions beyond the aesthetic object of art, bringing art to more brain regions than retinal. The purpose of the endless artistic object is confused with the technical obsolescence of the goods.
Thus, the art speaks only of his precarious condition of the goods in the world. Duchamp puts the authenticity ironically under suspicion when the urinal identifies the fictitious name "Rmut", where the first letter can be read as A or R. Duchamp became the icon of a type of art where every object is likely to be aestheticized, the viewer becomes a kind of narcissus, looking for reflections in a reified world. What shall constitute the work is not the object itself, but the way we prepare to see it:
"The act of seeing a work of art is transformed into an act of voyeurism. Looking is not a neutral experience: it is a complicity. The eye illuminates the object. The beholder is an observer (...) Look is a transgression, but the transgression is game creator. "
The art exists within a language of art has developed. She is now through a language and a predetermined visual thinking. In a sense, all painting their explicit conceptual frameworks that shape our gaze.
A work of art is always a puzzle that must paradoxically appear. Without exercise this mystery, art becomes an object whatever. When a work comes down to one concept, the material conditions under which the work appears may be discarded. It runs the danger of interpreting a work as mere support for ideas, as if she were not an issue in search of another kind, an alchemy ... It is the game of appearances often weaves in color, unstable and ephemeral phenomenon. Contemporary art is possible to note a tendency to say that just a book revealing his concept to show its validity. Some artists even say that no matter how the artwork appears! The arts, however, have always been connected to this land of quirky appearance.
"To segregate objects designated as painting or sculpture of all other objects of nature, the language has the status of sacred or mythic art without resorting to religion or myth"
The contemporary painting: the material medium, through words, language is interposed between the frame and look, this alone is not able to discern whether an object is art or not. The fact that an image is dependent on a historical situation in a linguistic context to decipher can not lead us to confuse interpretation with production of a work of art.
The artists became so fascinated by the potential of word imagery that tend to desestetizar the image to the fullest. Art exists from an artistic language has developed. It is through language and visual thinking previously established. In a sense, all painting their explicit conceptual frameworks that shape our gaze.
"We left the era of contemplation and entered the information age."
Lucia mosque Fortaleza Ceara Brazil